Monday, July 6, 2020

Risk Management Plan Identifying Risks And Consequences - 3575 Words

Risk Management Plan: Identifying Risks And Consequences (Essay Sample) Content: Risk managementNameInstructorInstitutionSummaryRisk management processesOccurrences that are likely to emerge and bring about positive or negative impressions on projects are risks. (Risk Management Plan). Risk management, on the other hand, is examining the probability of the occurrence of risk and then coming up with ways of controlling them. (Government, 2018). Through risk management, the managers of a project are able to anticipate and come up with a notion of dealing with these risks. The aim of the managers is to ensure that any negative impression is dealt with and the positive ones are utilized efficiently. In risk management, the risk is first recognized, examined and the ways of controlling it are evaluated. Legal papers have to be drawn which recognizes risks at the early age and also at the mature stage which is useful to the managers. The legal paper which is drawn by the managers to control the risk occurrence is the risk management plan. The plan invol ves recognizing the risk, finding its probability, risk triggers, which risk being administered to first, and how these risks respond (Risk Management Plan). There are several procedures used in managing risks.Identifying risks and consequencesThis is the very first step the stakeholders should put into consideration. In different projects, the nature of the risk varies and changes throughout the process. Risks identified at the early age give confidence to the project since this decrease the degree of risk. Identifying risk helps an organization foresee major risks that might cause a great impact on the project. Studying each and every risk independently can be tiresome. It is therefore advisable to identify risks which appear to be crucial and give them the first concern (Risk Management Plan, 2002). According to risk management plan, some risks can be discovered immediately when the project starts while others are discovered as the project continues. These risks can either be int ernal or external. Internal risks can be controlled by the organization while external risks are beyond the control of the organization (Goh et al.,2013). In identifying risks, various persons are allocated in different areas to provide information to the manager. The team member should be conscious of the risks that are likely to emerge during the project. This team identifies risks that have the probability of affecting their project and list down their nature. Using the information from the team members, the manager formulates a risk register. Adjustment of the risk register occurs when the causes of the risks change (Risk Management Plan,).Firstly, one must have a legal paper written and drawn by managers to control the risk. Secondly, in order to identify a risk, the managers must understand the flow of the plan from the beginning to the end so as to recognize the risks that may interfere with the project. They also have to understand different types of risks which comprise of those risks that result from poor technology. Poor management of resources is another type of risk. This can result when the managers are unable to utilize the available resources for optimum output. Additionally, both the internal and external environments of the organization should be studied closely. Considering past stored data of the organization may be used as an input in identifying risk. (Project Management, 2002).Reviewing information from past projects, plans and books is one of the tools used to recognize the risk. This literature provides useful information concerning the project. Secondly, data collection is a powerful tool for risk identification. Depending on the size of the organization, a proper method is chosen to collect information. Questionnaires may be used to collect data from colleagues. Since the sources of the information are kept anonymous, there may be little or no bias on the information. Face to face interviews may be used as an alternative to questionn aires. However, this method may not give very accurate results due to bias. Another risk identification technique is the analysis of past organizational data. Some organizations store data files while others utilize cloud storage. Documentation of past projects may be a vital source of information to aid in the process of risk identification. Additionally, the general opinion of members may be the key to identifying the risks. However, these opinions have not been practically proven to be true, rather they are wild guesses. Pictorial representation of data may be used to identify factors that bring about the risk. It is vital to understand the various components that make up the organization and how they are linked to each other. This can be achieved through the above mentioned pictorial representations. Therefore, having known these, it becomes easier to identify risk. (Project Management, 2002)The output from risk identificationAfter conducting the risk identification process, out puts from the study should be can be dealt with independently. Firstly, one of the outcomes would be the risk itself. Conditions that pose uncertainty are termed as risks as we are unable to predict the outcome of an occurrence. In the event of a risk, an organization may either get positive or negative results. Secondly, another output from the risk identification process may be signs of an impending risk activity that may lead to unpredictable results. A risk may have already have occurred without the consent of the manager. Therefore, having identified these outputs, it will be easier to analyze the identified risks. Finally, from the process, we can also determine the activities that lead to the development of risks which may include poor resource management and failure to complete all the modules of a project. This may be due to inadequate data available for analysis. (Project Management, 2002)Analyzing and evaluating riskThis is the second stage that the stakeholders should pu t into consideration. This stage helps the team to know the likelihood of the occurrence of risk and the trigger that it will cause. Lack of appropriate raw facts can result in poor results. (Dziadosz et al., 2015). Analyzing in accordance with the trigger one must incorporate things like the cost. This should be included in the document, even if it does not have a direct impact on the project. Where the output is seen as if it will not be completed as it was foreseen also this should be included in the document (Risk Management). There are basically two ways of analyzing risk; that is, qualitative and quantitative. (Project Management, 2002)Quantitative analysisThe probability of the recognized risks is examined through a predefined process. Some risks have a greater impact on a project while others have less impact. The risks with a greater impact are dealt with first, followed by those with lesser implications. This may determine whether further research should be done on the ri sk. Analysis of available useful information helps the organization to analyze risks. This information may be available locally in the offices' files or the Internet. The likelihood of occurrence and the outcomes of these risks are investigated by using this method. It's a method which needs to be implemented throughout the project. (Project Management, 2002)Inputs to Qualitative risk analysisAfter identifying the underlying risks, there is a need to analyze them. Firstly, the use of a legal paper drawn by managers to control the risk should be implemented. This will particularly aid in maintaining policies that control the prevalence of risks. The risks discovered together with their implications for the project may be another input to the risk analysis process. During the early stages of the project, there are fewer risks meaning as the project continues to develop, other risks might emerge. The managers are able to know the likelihood of a risk occurring for projects that have be en done several times than for the projects that are starting from scratch. The identified risks should be well researched on and understood by all stakeholders of the project as it is being executed. (Project Management, 2002)Tools and TechniquesThe possibility of the occurrence of a risk is not certain. If it occurs, it causes a certain degree of impact which can be termed in levels. (Project Management, 2002). Therefore, the use of probability proves to be very effective. Mapping the risks to their respective degrees of impact could be another means. This will particularly aid in identifying the risks and the respective objective of the project that it impacts on. A project is usually divided into small manageable portions which have their own output, which are later merged to form the final project solution. It is therefore difficult to view the project as a whole when identifying risks. (Project Management, 2002).Outputs from Qualitative risk analysisAfter a successive risk ana lysis, the project behavior could be compared and contrasted with other previous projects behavior in the occurrence of risks. Projects may vary in size, scope and requirements, therefore, having different objectives. Objectives may be altered in the event of a risk. It is therefore prudent to compare the successes or failures of projects with each other and determine the main risks in each of them. With this information, a manager will be able to come up with alternatives to reduce risk. Additionally, Stakeholders are able to level risks, according to the urgency of being attended to. Those that are crucial are ranked high while the rest follows (Dumbarav, 2013). A list of high priority risks are developed. Since a project is timely, dealing with the major risks would be prudent. Finally, after a series of qualitative risk analysis on projects, it is possible to draw a bottom line. (Project Management, 2002)Quantitative Risk Analys...

Wednesday, July 1, 2020

Parallel Experiences Shape Atonement - Literature Essay Samples

In a very meta fashion, Atonement repeatedly places emphasis and raises questions about the significance and the role of the writer in literature. By eventually revealing that Briony has been the one penning the story all along, readers are left doubting nearly everything they have read before. Briony/McEwan’s comparisons of Robbie and Briony simultaneously paint Briony as a manipulative character influenced by class differences and a character that was truly trying to atone. While there is constantly an underlying importance in the role of the writer, the paramount issue is class differences. This overarching theme is largely seen through the parallel experiences of Robbie and Briony and the symbols that are shared between the two of them. Robbie Turner is a character that is never granted freedom. He is always pent up in many ways: He has to serve a family during his youth, he is strangled by his love for Cecilia, he is imprisoned because of his love for Cecilia, and released on the grounds that he potentially – and later, literally – give his life for his country. This damnation is entirely caused by the grave that Briony digs for him. Eventually, during his time as a soldier, a piece of the war gets lodged inside of him in the form of shrapnel. Later on, during Briony’s section, she removes pieces of shrapnel from many soldiers, who are frequently in worse shape than Robbie was. This is symbolic of Briony trying to redeem herself, especially as she briefly mentions how she was hoping Robbie would be one of the soldiers she would be taking care of. Even though she indirectly put Robbie in the line of fire, by saving the men in front of her, she is indirectly still trying to save Robbie. She is re moving the pieces of shrapnel from every body she wishes was Robbie’s – knowing that these are pieces of war that she essentially lodged in his body, therefore trying to atone for her sins. While this could speak to the theme of the role of the writer, it ultimately speaks to the role of class differences in England, especially between Briony and Robbie. Briony’s eternal inability to see past class differences is something that makes her character unredeemable. In this instance, the fact that she is placing Robbie in the warzone while simultaneously saving men from war’s consequences is symbolic of the ubiquitous control that the upper class has over the lives of the lower class. This is also epitomized through the role of Paul Marshall, who uses Robbie as a pawn to escape his own consequences and guilt. Because Paul and Briony are members of the upper class, it is infinitely easier for them to be able to manipulate the role that people like Robbie will t ake. Robbie never had a say in whether or not he would be sent to prison or war (the absence of a trial made that abundantly clear). Instead, it was Paul and Briony who decided his fate for him. The fact that it is Briony who is saving people like him and Paul who is feeding people like him reinforce the idea that the soldiers and other lowly people’s lives are completely handled by the elite. They have the choices: To feed, to starve; To save, to kill; To blame, to listen to. The value of a life is no longer an abstract, inspiring thing, but a unit that is assigned a dollar sign or a prison sentence. Try as she might to save the likes of Robbie, it was the likes of Briony that put him there in the first place. Whether or not Briony learned anything significant or developed throughout the novel in a substantial way, caring for the Frenchman especially changed her view of the war. His death is significant and seemingly symbolic of Robbie, as well. By this point, Robbie had already died. However, throughout the entirety of the war – and probably as soon as Briony convicted him – Robbie was forever stamped as a man who would not be able to fully be helped. Briony knew this even in the fabricated story she wrote â€Å"for him and Cee.† Coming clean about her lies would not impart justice upon a man married to his victim. Robbie would never receive proper reparations. Similarly, when she approaches the Frenchman, she is unable to help him and even â€Å"could not help feeling offended† because it would be a waste of her services elsewhere (287). While it would be easy for Briony to leave his side, find other patients who could be salvaged, and singlehandedly create a better world, she is ordered to stay by a man who would soon die. Spending time with him did nothing to tangibly create her legacy or perfect idealizations of herself. It was – by all means – a waste of time that could have been better-spent saving soldiers who had a chance, however immoral that is. That she spends his last moments with him; however, mirror the harsh realities of her life and interactions in relation to Robbie. For all intents and purposes, Robbie cannot be helped. Still she agonizes over the thought of him and what she has done. She sits and listens to the Frenchman who might not be deserving of her time when he needed her most. If she had sat and listened to Robbie (who she thought was not deserving of her time) when he needed her most, she might not have damned him. She creates a peaceful ending for the Frenchman’s life, and while she attempts to do that by penning their story, she never could truly reverse time and do that with Robbie. The parallel experiences that Briony and Robbie both experience are meant to further mimic the major motif of class differences. The two characters are so universally different, and yet, we see both of them completing their journeys in similar ways with similar symbols. Reiterating the importance and role of the author, pairing Briony and Robbie as dealing with similar hardships draws a level of understanding between the two of them. While we learn about Cecilia, Robbie and Briony are the only two minds we get to fully enter. In this way, the two become a pair and it creates a space to compare and contrast the two characters and their experiences. When they are both suffering from thirst and blisters, we see Robbie struggling with the idea of how much destruction and harm humans can inflict upon one another. He deals with the harshness and casualness with which war is approached. Briony gets glimpses of this through her experiences as a nurse, as well. Both of them come to the realiz ation that nobody can be unaffected by war. They are also compared by their enduring pain. Robbie constantly, but silently, comments on the pain from his bullet wound. Meanwhile, when the drove of wounded soldiers arrive at Briony’s hospital, she describes the pain of carrying in one of the stretchers. While the two instances are significantly shorter in the time they occupy – both for the characters and the readers – it contrasts the endurance of the two characters. While Briony almost immediately feels that â€Å"her left wrist could not hold up†¦her fingers were loosening†¦[and her] fingers went slack,† (274-275). While she paints herself as a person put in great effort to get the soldier to safety, it is still clear that at the â€Å"moment the war touched her life, at the first moment of pressure, she had failed,† (275). Robbie, on the other hand, does not stand for defeat. Throughout his strife, he knows that â€Å"you walked acros s the land until you came to the sea,† (206). At this point, he is too thirsty to eat and too blistered to walk properly. His â€Å"wound throbbed uncomfortably, each beat precise and tight,† which continues throughout his journey (189). These two parallels between their sufferings ironically expose both of their inner strengths. Briony is clearly much weaker than Robbie. Her journey through saving all of the wounded soldiers causes her nothing but thirst and exhaustion – which she doesn’t particularly notice throughout the event’s duration. Still, at the very beginning, she finds herself almost unable to continue her task after a mere few minutes. Oppositely, Robbie is able to last days traversing lands with a shrapnel wound throbbing at his stomach. He is physically stronger and still finds himself putting the lives of the rest of his compatriots in front of his own. The difference in Briony and Robbie’s worth to the world is astronomical; a well-educated man who is able to save soldiers, put on a brave face and persist through a healthy stretch of the war compared to an immature girl who is hardly able to help the first solider she comes in contact with. The irony in all of this lies in the fact that, still, it is Briony who survives. The worth of Robbie’s life is entirely diminished and devalued because of his social standing, an idea that is reinforced throughout the beginning of the novel surrounding his education and imprisonment. If he was given the opportunity, he could’ve been greatly beneficial to the nation, or even just his family or community. Briony is given the chance to demonstrate her worth repeatedly and the only thing she proves is that she can choose the right keys to press on a typewriter to make a good sentence. Still, the fact that she was born into a better family than Robbie dictates that her life will always be of higher value than his. No matter what he can do, their interactions prove that it was quantity of dollars, not quality of personhood, which counted to be deemed important.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Ethical Issues in Hrm Strategy - 1200 Words

Ethical Issues in HRM Strategy Richard H. Hill Dr. Grace M. Endres July 18, 2012 Strayer University Abstract This paper concerns itself with the role of Human Resource Management and the role it plays in the development of corporate strategy. Additional, the paper addresses the issue of ethics concerning Human Resource Managers sharing information learned from a previous client with the new client. Identify the areas of overlap in the new client organization with others that you have had as clients. If you have limited experience with these types of problems, be sure to research common issues to complete the question. An area of overlap for a Human Resources consulting include the area of employment laws based in Title VII†¦show more content†¦These articles also documented the unethical behavior of an HR consultant who used privileged financial information to enrich himself and his best friend at the clients expense (Former Mercer HR, n.d.). Discuss your approach to customizing HRM strategy to business strategy Prior to any discussions regarding HRM alignment with business strategy, it is necessary to distinguish the role of traditional HR from the role of strategic HRM. The Journal of Management published an excellent article written jointly by Brian E. Becker and Mark A. Huselid. The article was entitled Strategic Resource Management: Where Do We Go From Here? Becker and Huselid made a distinction between Human Resources and Strategic Human Resource Management. According to Becker and Huselid, the distinction between HR and HRM centers on two important facts. First, traditional HR focused on individual performance and in contrast, HRM focused on organizational performance. Second, HRM uses human resources systems to solve business problems conversely, traditional HR kept human resource functions separate from the business functions (Becker amp; Huselid, 2006). Human Resource managers must gain the confidence of the business leaders for whom they work. HRM gains the confidence of the business team by approaching human resource strategy and business goals as inextricably linked. In othersShow MoreRelatedHrm 560843 Words   |  4 PagesEthical Issues In HRM Strategy Brandi Hancock HRM 530 Strategic Human Resource Management October 30, 2012 Dr. Lila Jordan Ethical Issues in HRM Strategy Identify areas of overlap in the new client organization with other that you have had as clients When hired as a newly HRM (Human Resource Management) consultant, you must first have understand of the role before beganing assisting with any issues or other areas of overlap. The primary role of a HRM consultant â€Å"is to assist the clientRead MoreEthical Issues in Human Resource Management Strategies936 Words   |  4 PagesEthical issues in HRM strategy Introduction The plans for managing an organizations structure, culture, people, training and development are referred to as HRM strategies. These strategies are also used to determine how employees fit in the organizations growth in the future. In business practices, the level of honesty and transparency is referred to as ethics. HRM strategies should guide employees on their workplace behavior. These strategies show the organizations expectations of its employeesRead MoreThe Framework of Human Resource Management920 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction The essay will introduce the reader to the framework of Human Resource Management (HRM) practices that can help companies deal with sustainability, globalization and technology challenges. 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These issues are tactical, but strategic in that HRM is now tasked with planning and projecting employees, helping to retain talent, and recruiting more aggressively and robustly rather than simply advertising for a job. Strategic HRM takes on an even more common role becomingRead MoreThe Role Of Human Resource Management And The Strategy Process1462 Words   |  6 Pagespaper will review the role of human resource management (HRM) in the strategy process. This will include the function of recruitment and training programs in HRM, the concept of strategic fi t and how human resource management can lead to a competitive advantage. Also I will look at compensation and benefits, relevance to my workplace, and my personal reflection. The manner in which an organization’s personnel are managed has a tangible influence on the productivity of the employees, which

Plato s Allegory Of The Cave Essay - 1842 Words

Many, even perhaps all of the great religious texts we have read in this class have talked and discussed about the individual human ego. Although there is no absolutely solid evidence to prove that the Bhagavad-Gita and the Tao Te Ching have a relation that influenced each other, the core ideas of these two great works from two great ancient culture have surprising similarities. This discovery can be explained by the similarity of Chinese and Indian cultural background. However, in Plato’s works (the Five Dialogues and the Republic), we are able to find pieces about importance of our ego as well. Plato is one of the most important philosophers in western history. That brings us a question, why ego is such significant for both western and eastern philosophers and religious works? Sigmund Freud, who carried on Plato’s thinking on humanity and our society, pointed out what Plato has vaguely discussed about that the significance and impact the ego has on us. In Platoâ€℠¢s Allegory of the Cave, what the prisoners are actually experiencing the fight between id and ego. The process of getting out of the cave and getting used to the sunlight are the process of taming the ego inside the prisoners (Jowett 12). In Freud s theory, the ego mediates among the id, the super-ego and the external world. Its task is to find a balance between primitive drives, morals, and reality while satisfying the id and superego. Its main concern is with the individual s safety and allows some of the idShow MoreRelatedPlato s Allegory Of The Cave1716 Words   |  7 PagesIn Plato’s, Allegory of the cave, a key theory I found was the importance of education. Plato uses an â€Å"allegory to illustrate the dilemma facing the psyche in the ascent to knowledge of the imperishable and unchanging forms† (104) Based on my research of the republic, the allegory can reveal multiple hidden messages. Plato describes, ordinary mortals are chained within an underground chamber, which according to Fiero, represents the psyche imprisoned within the human body. These mortals can’t lookRead MorePlato s Allegory Of Cave1979 Words   |  8 PagesJaneva Walters December 6, 2016 Dr. T. Brady ENG 391 Plato’s Allegory of Cave The allegory of the cave is regarded as one of the most reputed and acclaimed works by the Greek philosopher Plato in modern literature as well as philosophy. First published and presented in his work known as a Republic (514a–520a), the dialogues that have been used as conversation can be regarded as fictitious as the main conversation takes place between Plato’s brother Glaucon and Socrates. First and foremost, allegoricalRead MorePlato s Allegory Of The Cave1814 Words   |  8 PagesIn Plato’s, â€Å"Allegory of the Cave†, a key theory I found was the importance of gaining knowledge. Plato uses an â€Å"allegory to illustrate the dilemma facing the psyche in the ascent to knowledge of the imperishable and unchanging forms† (Fiero, 104). Based on my research of the Republic, the allegory can reveal multiple hidden messages. Plato describes in the Allegory, ordinary mortals who are chained within an underground chamber, which according to Fiero, r epresents the psyche imprisoned within theRead MorePlato s Allegory Of The Cave1379 Words   |  6 Pagesbeen in a cave? Caves are dark, cold, and often times dangerous. People who lose their source of light in a cave often face death from physical injury or hypothermia, unless otherwise rescued. The Greek philosopher Plato illustrated the difference between reality and illusion through a story about prisoners who lived their entire existence in a cave. Plato tells the â€Å"Allegory of the Cave† as a conversation between Socrates, his mentor, and Glaucon, one of Socrates’ students. Plato’s allegory of theRead MorePlato s Allegory Of The Cave Essay1630 Words   |  7 Pagescondition impressed by an image can sometimes like as a flame, spreading throughout other discourses for long after its initial kindling. Such is the case with Plato s allegory of the cave, which has for over 2,500 years inspired significant contributions to theorizations of truth. Despite t he age of Plato s work, the truth in the allegory is demonstrated by its own universality; as a formative piece of literature, the story acts as a gateway into Western discourses of truth. Truth remains an elusiveRead MorePlato s The Allegory Of The Cave1965 Words   |  8 PagesIn this paper I shall argue for Socrates’ notion in the Allegory of the Cave, saying that the purpose of education is not to place knowledge to the mind where there was none, but instead to recognise the already underlying existence of such insight inside the mind, and to help divert the ones in need of teaching onto the correct path to find and retrieve such knowledge. Plato in his time was a dedicated student of Socrates, so most of Socrates â€Å"logos† and concepts heavily influenced Plato’s futureRead MorePlato s Allegory Of The Cave910 Words   |  4 Pagesnature within them to reach their potential. Allegory is to reveal a hidden meaning, normally a moral, based on fictional stories. Plato Allegory of the Cave reminds us that the theory of Forms is real and suggests that the one with the empirical science would share his mind with the commoner in society. We must grasp the complex different types of Forms – opinion, knowledge and beauty really meant for Plato. In Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, Plato talks about dualism, mind (soul) and body. InRead MorePlato s Allegory Of The Cave Essay1370 Words   |  6 Pagesflesh to satisfy the god (Ahmed 2010). All of these civilizations were interactive with their environment, but imagine if one knew only of the reality they believed inside of a cave not experiencing e vents within the real world. In Plato’s, Allegory of the Cave, he describes the scenario of prisoners kept isolated in a cave left to come up with a reality that they comprehended with the images that they saw in front of them. This applies especially to politics, because people are left to decipherRead MoreAnalyzing Plato s Allegory Of The Cave874 Words   |  4 PagesI’ll be analyzing Plato’s Allegory of the Cave through my own interpretation. An allegory is defined as â€Å"a story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one.† In Plato’s Republic the short excerpt The Allegory of the Cave can be viewed through multiple perspectives. Plato’s image of the cave is known as the â€Å"theory of forms†¦ The theory assumes the existence of a level of reality inhabited by ideal â€Å"forms† of all things and concepts (Revelations:Read MorePlato s Allegory Of The Cave1217 Words   |  5 Pagesthe other persons and sometimes that can get a little out of hand, depending on who you are dealing with. I guess the major point in all this is to never judge a book by its cover, always learn yourself. In Plato’s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave†, there are these prisoners that live in a cave and have never seen any natural sunlight. They can only see shadows of things displayed on the wall by the light coming from the fire. The prisoners get happy and interested by the shadows they see. The shadows could

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Improving Police Community Relations Between Police And...

Improving police-community relations allows officers to do their job more effectively, it can also help officers have a better morale and find their jobs safer and easier. If a level of trust is established between police and the community they serve, members of the community will be more willing to offer their help to solve crimes, and give out information about possible suspects. It is extremely important for the police to have an open line communication to the community if they want to increase the community’s level of satisfaction. Improving police-community relations will not only benefit the police department, it will also help community members. If the residents of a respective area trust their police officers they will be able to have less fear and feel safer around their neighborhood. It will also help because if the police and the community work together crimes will be resolved quicker which will lead to criminals being apprehended, crime levels being lower and the community being safer. There are many things that distinguish community policing from traditional policing. For example, in traditional policing the focus and most important goal is to apprehend criminals and bring them to justice. However, community policing focuses on ways the police department and the community could get together to prevent crime and become a team. One of the major differences is that in community policing there is a pact of shared responsibility, in which both community residentsShow MoreRelatedPolice Influence On Society : The United States943 Words   |  4 PagesPolice Influence on Society The United States is one of the most civilized and structured countries in the World. Since the early settlers came to the new country and established settlements there has been a need for law enforcement. As most of the settlers immigrated from English colonies it is no surprise that law enforcement in the new world was modeled from English culture however, no matter if its United States or England government is the foundation of law enforcement. As such, policingRead MoreImproving The Relationship Between The Police And The Public960 Words   |  4 PagesPSC 201 Fall 2015 Improving the Relationship Between the Police and the Public There are many reasons why the police have a difficult time interacting with the communities they are supposed to protect and serve. These issues did not occur overnight however the string of police involved shootings throughout the United States seems to wedge a bigger gap between the pubic and the police, along with poor communication skills and lack of positive engagement with the community. 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Organizational Behavior Communication Paper - 1190 Words

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Quantitative Risk Analysis In Information Security Management

Question: Describe about the Quantitative Risk Analysis in Information Security Management? Answer: Introduction This is a report on the application of modern information security tools and techniques contrasting in practical scenarios. In order to demonstrate these applications, this report draws a comparison of a failed conspiracy of the late 16th century known as the Babington Plot, famous for the way the English intelligence network managed to use espionage and cryptanalysis to safeguard the throne, and postulates how such a conspiracy would have benefited from modern information security technology. The Babington Plot was a conspiracy to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I and replace her with Queen Mary Stuart alongside a Spanish invasion into England. It was thwarted by Sir Francis Walsinghams efforts over 20 years to establish a valiant spy network and infiltrate the ranks of any potential threats. On account of his spies, Walsingham was able to collect damning evidence against all conspirators, especially Mary Stuart, who was the primary target of his espionage and ended up being executed for her involvement in the plot. The key evidence that made the case was acquired by a security leak in the communications between Mary Stuart and her supporters, both within and outside England, created by Walsingham that allowed him to intercept all such communications. After a detailed breakdown of the shortcomings of the communication channels established by the conspirators, this report presents a postulated scenario of such a plot occurring in the 21st century and how modern technology could play a role in plugging the gaps in the original 16th century plot. Information Security Techniques Used Before discussing the exact techniques employed during the course of the plot in order to establish secure communication, we must first look at the major persons of interest who were directly involved in the line of communication. The following is a brief of these people: Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots: She was a legitimate heir to the throne of England and had been chased out of Scotland by Scottish rebels. She was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth I for 19 years at various locations and under the charge of various jailers. Sir Francis Walsingham: Then spymaster in the employ of Queen Elizabeth I, he was able to discover the ongoing plot and planted a double agent, Gilbert Gifford, in the line of communication between Mary and her co-conspirators in order to collect evidence against the conspirators thus eliminating Mary from the line of succession. John Ballard: He was a Jesuit priest as well as an agent of the Roman Church who was able to group together a number of other conspirators in a plot not just spanning the assassination of Queen Elizabeth but also encompassing a Spanish invasion of England, deposing Queen Elizabeth (a Protestant) and replacing her with Queen Mary (a Catholic). Anthony Babington: A Catholic recruit of John Ballard, he served the role of a courier for messages between the imprisoned Mary and other conspirators for a duration of time. He was also instrumental in Marys communications with her foreign supporters. Thomas Phelippes: He was a cryptanalyst in the employ of Walsingham and was directly inserted in the line of communication for decoding all letters sent to and received from Mary and making copies of the letters. Gilbert Gifford: A double agent who was originally involved in a previous plot against Queen Elizabeth but was captured by Walsingham and eventually agreed to act as a double agent in order to avoid punishment. Throughout the course of Marys imprisonment, a number of channels and techniques were employed for communication. However, the crux of the Babington Plot was the communication between the conspirators after a July 1584 decree by Queen Elizabeth that prevented all communications to and from Mary, thus also eliminating the possibility of incriminating her in a plot. A new line of communication had to be established, and this was tailor-made by Walsingham to suit his needs. The communications to Mary were received by the French ambassador to England as diplomatic packages. These were passed on by him to Gifford who would then hand them over to Walsingham. Walsingham would allow his cryptanalyst Phelippe to decode and copy the letters, then reseal the letters and return them to Gifford. As per previous arrangement, Gifford would hand this letter to a local brewer who would hide the letters in a water-tight casing inside the stopper of a barrel, thus smuggling them to Mary. The reverse pr ocedure was followed for letters originating from Mary. It is notable that the cipher used in these communications, a nomenclature cipher, was provided by Walsingham himself. The nomenclature cipher was a very popular type of cipher used in the 16th century for secure communication and is regarded as a type of substitution cipher which employs homophonic substitutions. The following is an analysis of this episode from the standpoint of achieving the three goals of secure communication confidentiality, integrity and availability. Confidentiality. The primary device employed by Mary and her conspirators to ensure confidentiality was to encode letters using a cipher which was supposedly known only to the two parties involved in the communication. There were multiple vulnerabilities in their designs. Firstly, the secrecy of the cipher had been compromised. Thus, all their communications were easily decoded and recorded. Secondly, a single cipher was used for all communications which ensured that once the cipher is known to an interceptor, all further messages are insecure. Thirdly, verification of the secrecy of the cipher was difficult to achieve. Even if a single cipher is to be used throughout all communications, if there were a mechanism in place to check if the cipher has been leaked to outside parties, then appropriate counter-measures could have been taken. Integrity. There were no mechanism in place to ensure integrity of messages. Therefore, it was extremely easy for anyone in the communication chain or for someone intercepting messages in the middle of the chain to modify the contents of the messages being conveyed. This was exploited by Walsingham in the instance of a reply from Mary to an authorization request for the assassination plan, approving of the plans of her supporters but not expressing authorization. The original letter was kept by him as evidence and a duplicate letter was forged, in which instructions to reveal the identities of all co-conspirators and their roles was added by him along with authorization to proceed with the plan, and sent to the French ambassador as a letter from Mary herself. Availability. There were minimal considerations given to ensuring availability of the messages, especially from the viewpoint of modern information security. The meandering routes taken for all communication and the long distances to be travelled made it so that, in the absence of any high-speed data transmission technology, the only concern of the conspirators was to ensure secure delivery of messages. Walsingham was keen to ensure steady communication between Mary and her supporters as this was the most important pre-requisite for gathering evidence against Mary. Modern Techniques Now that we have discussed the original intricacies of the plot and the various mechanisms employed for secure communication during the conception of the Babington Plot in the late 16th century, we can proceed to adapt the scenario to the 21st-century. Should a similar scenario arise in the present era, the following adaptations of the original plot are quite probable. Firstly, the communication link would definitely be digital. As the people involved in the conspiracy are distributed far apart from each other geographically, it is only logical that digital communication media, most likely the internet and e-mail, would be employed. Secondly, due to the addition of high-speed computing in to the mix, both the cryptography and cryptanalysis techniques would be significantly upgraded. Instead of a simple substitution cipher, which can be easily cracked using computers, a more sophisticated encryption algorithm would be used. Thirdly, the role of Gilbert Gifford would experience a notable change. Modern day message carriers, the role previously played by Gilbert Gifford, are computers and not people. Thus, it is highly likely for Mary to communicate directly with Babington and other conspirators without needing Gifford to relay her messages. It is thus more likely for Gifford to only receive copies of their exchanges for the purpose of managing logistics or such, if at all. The other people and props involved purely in communication of messages, such as the brewer and his beer barrels, can be imagined to have been replaced by e-mail Servers and electronic devices hard-wired with communication protocols. Fourthly, new security concerns arising out of usage of modern technology will need to be addressed. Most of these are modern day complications, derivations or branches of existing security issues which have been born due to the advances in technology, for example new forms of social engineering attacks. Therefore, to imagine the enactment of the Babington Plot in the modern era such that Mary Stuart and her fellow conspirators would strive to establish a secure line of communication via modern e-mail technology, it can be postulated that these techniques would be employed: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA). This is a modern day take to the brewer and his beer barrel from the original plot in the 1580s. Messages are transferred between the conspirators using a well-known MTA as this ensures that the MTA will ensure many aspects of secure transmission, including a measure of confidentiality, integrity and most importantly availability. In the modern day, digital transmission of data should be almost instantaneous and availability of message transmission services as well as transmitted data is a huge concern. Therefore, relying on a well-established and publically respected MTA is recommended. Authenticated Encryption. Authenticated Encryption (AE) is a data encryption technique which employs a block cipher to simultaneously provide confidentiality, integrity and authenticity. Some of this is redundant but recommended nevertheless with the usage of an MTA. An example of an AE would be combining a Message Authentication Code (MAC) with another data encryption function. A MAC uses the concept of a secret key shared between two end-users to ensure authentication and data integrity by using this key to generate meta-data (hash) specific to the key and the original data. Thus, any changes to the data or any differences in the key used for generating the hash will cause a mismatch with the original hash. In addition to this, the original message is encrypted using a data encryption algorithm (e.g. AES) and the MAC may be generated before or after encryption. Key Distribution. This is one of the greatest concerns of modern day information security. In the case of asymmetric encryption algorithms, public key servers have been able to resolve this issue in large parts. Symmetric key encryption algorithms are trickier in their needs for secure distribution of keys and this is often achieved by first establishing a secure communication line with the help of asymmetric keys. As was mentioned in the shortcomings of the original communication line in the Babington Plot, using a single cipher (or in this case key) for extended periods of communication causes vulnerabilities to arise and thus it is recommended for the key to be changed on a periodic basis. Conclusion and Recommendation The study and analysis of the circumstances and facts surrounding the Babington Plot have revealed that concerns regarding secure communication have been carried down from several centuries ago to the modern day. Emergence of new technology has changed the way these concerns apply to real life, and has introduced new forms and factors that affect these applications, but the basic concepts of confidentiality, integrity and availability are largely unaffected. The Babington Plot was thwarted by the presence of a large number of security leaks. These leaks were a product of the extensive spy network established by Sir Francis Walsingham and demonstrated that while the conspirators were committed to their cause, they were unable to outsmart their enemies. Thus, it can be said that the conspirators lost the information war, a term which is generally associated with the Information Era or the 21st century, but definitely holds true even for a case from the 16th century. It is thus highly recommended for any endeavor that requires secure communications to check and re-check all their communication links for conformity to the basic standards of information security. The techniques highlighted in this report are some suggestions that could benefit secure communications but should not be regarded as the entire gamut of security measures available in the modern day. The information war, between spies and counter-spies, guardians and hackers, thieves and security forces, is constantly on-going and ever-changing in form. Thus, caution and awareness are the only reliable tools to step towards victory. Reference Pachghare, V. K. (2015).Cryptography and information security. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.. Oppliger, R. (2015). Quantitative Risk Analysis in Information Security Management: A Modern Fairy Tale.IEEE Security Privacy, (6), 18-21. Rebollo, O., Mellado, D., Fernndez-Medina, E., Mouratidis, H. (2015). Empirical evaluation of a cloud computing information security governance framework.Information and Software Technology,58, 44-57. Jajodia, S. (2015). Advances in Information Security. Chen, X., Zhang, Z., Chen, H. H., Zhang, H. (2015). Enhancing wireless information and power transfer by exploiting multi-antenna techniques.Communications Magazine, IEEE,53(4), 133-141. Ab Rahman, N. H., Choo, K. K. R. (2015). A survey of information security incident handling in the cloud.Computers Security,49, 45-69. Kenkre, P. S., Pai, A., Colaco, L. (2015). Real time intrusion detection and prevention system. InProceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications (FICTA) 2014(pp. 405-411). Springer International Publishing. Haya, G. M. (2015, June). Complexity Reduction in Information Security Risk Assessment. InProceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGMIS Conference on Computers and People Research(pp. 5-6). ACM.